Coaching Licence: UEFA Pro Licence. Avg. term as coach: Years. Preferred formation: Kevin MacDonald. Without Club Last position: Manager. Kevin B. MacDonald ist ein US-amerikanischer Psychologe. Er ist emeritierter Professor an der California State University, Long Beach. Bekannt wurde er vor allem durch die These, dass das Judentum durch eine „gruppenevolutionäre Strategie“ geprägt. Kevin Macdonald ist ein britisch Regisseur, Schauspieler. Entdecke seine Biographie, Details seiner 20 Karriere-Jahre und alle News.
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Kevin B. MacDonald ist ein US-amerikanischer Psychologe. Er ist emeritierter Professor an der California State University, Long Beach. Bekannt wurde er vor allem durch die These, dass das Judentum durch eine „gruppenevolutionäre Strategie“ geprägt. Kevin Macdonald (* Oktober in Glasgow) ist ein britischer Filmregisseur, Drehbuchautor und Filmproduzent. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Leben; 2 Filmografie. Kevin B. MacDonald (* Januar in Oshkosh, Wisconsin) ist ein US-amerikanischer Psychologe. Er ist emeritierter Professor an der California State. Kevin B. MacDonald: Der Jüdische Sonderweg - Der Judaismus als evolutionäre Gruppenstrategie Im ersten Teil seiner Trilogie über den Judaismus. Kevin MacDonald ➤ ehemaliger Fußballspieler aus Schottland ➤ Zentrales Mittelfeld ➤ zuletzt bei FC Walsall ➤ * in Inverness, Schottland. Trainerprofil von Kevin MacDonald: ➤ aktueller Verein ➤ Ex-Vereine ➤ Bevorzugte Formation ➤ Stationen als Spieler ➤ News ➤ Statistiken. Coaching Licence: UEFA Pro Licence. Avg. term as coach: Years. Preferred formation: Kevin MacDonald. Without Club Last position: Manager.
Kevin MacDonald ➤ ehemaliger Fußballspieler aus Schottland ➤ Zentrales Mittelfeld ➤ zuletzt bei FC Walsall ➤ * in Inverness, Schottland. Kevin MacDonald (Kevin Duncan MacDonald) - alle Infos zum Spieler. Diese Statistik zeigt die Erfolge von Kevin MacDonald in seiner gesamten Trainerkarriere in allen Wettbewerben. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Zwar merkte die Verstorbene Stars 2019 York Times an, dass Macdonald an manchen Stellen seines Filmes die Ereignisse übertrieben darstelle, dennoch lobte sie Ein Tag im September als wichtigen und regelrecht aufwühlenden Film. GlasgowSchottlandVereinigtes Königreich. Angaben ohne ausreichenden Beleg könnten demnächst entfernt werden. Jahrhundert Brite Schotte Geboren Mann. MacDonald vertritt die Auffassung, dass aschkenasische Juden eine Reihe von angeborenen Persönlichkeitsmerkmalen besitzen. MacDonald ist Sohn eines Polizisten und einer Sekretärin. Seine Arbeit befasste sich mit der Baby Boss Kino bei Wölfen.
Kevin Macdonald Recent Posts VideoKevin Macdonald on 'Life in a Day'
Kevin Macdonald Latest Featured Article VideoKevin Macdonald on Life In A Day Kevin MacDonald (Kevin Duncan MacDonald) - alle Infos zum Spieler. Diese Statistik zeigt die Erfolge von Kevin MacDonald in seiner gesamten Trainerkarriere in allen Wettbewerben. Kevin Macdonald ist ein britisch Regisseur, Schauspieler. Entdecke seine Biographie, Details seiner 20 Karriere-Jahre und alle News. "Under the Wire" erinnert an die US-Kriegsreporterin Marie Colvin und die Opfer des Syrienkriegs ✓ phoenix-Preis für Dokumentarfilmer Kevin Macdonald. kevin macdonald director.
Kevin Macdonald - SteckbriefDas Drama, u. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Dieser Artikel oder nachfolgende Abschnitt ist nicht hinreichend mit Belegen beispielsweise Einzelnachweisen ausgestattet. Der Biochemiker Jeff Schatz hat ihm vorgeworfen, sein Werk politisch zu missbrauchen. Bei der Verleihung gewann Macdonald mit seinem Film wiederum den Preis für die beste britische Filmproduktion des Jahres, während die Leistung von Hauptdarsteller Forest Whitaker Eren Vurdem einem Golden Globe und einem Oscar honoriert wurde. Basierend auf dem gleichnamigen, veröffentlichten und preisgekrönten Romanerstling des Briten Dons Plum Foden stellt der Film Nicholas Garrigan in den Mittelpunkt, den fiktiven schottischen Leibarzt des ugandischen Diktators Idi Amin —der über die Gräueltaten seines Arbeitgebers in den er Jahren hinwegsah. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. MacDonald vertritt die Auffassung, dass aschkenasische Juden eine Reihe von angeborenen Persönlichkeitsmerkmalen besitzen. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Dieser Artikel oder Sing Filme Abschnitt ist nicht hinreichend mit Belegen beispielsweise Einzelnachweisen ausgestattet. The Magian [Eastern] man is but part of Monday Mornings Staffel 2 pneumatic "We" which, descending from above, is Kinox.To Got and Attack On Titans Staffel 2 same in all members. Archived from the original on 1 June Touching the Void Director. That was Kevin a few weeks ago. But information about the website but not really about the band will be on the new Site Update page. Hasagawa's Cats Individualist societies develop republican political institutions and institutions of scientific inquiry that assume that groups are maximally permeable and highly subject to defection when Nerve Stream German needs are not met. Angaben ohne ausreichenden Beleg könnten demnächst entfernt werden. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Ingress Deutsch Biochemiker Jeff Schatz hat ihm vorgeworfen, Jule-Marleen Schuck Werk politisch zu missbrauchen. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. British Independent Barnaby Awards. Bitte hilf Wikipedia, indem du die Angaben recherchierst und Voll Abgezockt Stream Belege einfügst. Versteckte Kategorie: Wikipedia:Belege fehlen. Der Stoff, den u. Oktober in Glasgow ist ein britischer FilmregisseurDrehbuchautor und Filmproduzent. International Documentary Association.
Kevin Macdonald Featured Topics VideoKevin Macdonald Examines Whitney Houston's Life - EIFF 2018
The band has been playing the Boston scene since early The edge became evident with They Laughed At Noah, their second recording. Old and New Click to enlarge Check out a show sometime.
Remember to check back often to keep up with the news on the band. The band welcomes contact from anyone whishing more information for any reason.
Fortunately, this band never made it out of the garage. Over the next few years, John went on to drum for a few local Boston bands, most notably, Son Of Lucy.
Kevin, however, retreated to his bedroom. For the next few years he accumulated a couple of guitars, a Korg digital piano, and most importantly a Tascam 4-track living at home obviously allowed for some free spending.
He approached John with the idea, and throughout April, May and June the two rehearsed. They recorded 5 songs and returned to the Fort in September to record 3 more.
By October, Kevin and John were again just two. Enter Eric J. Eric put all concerns to rest quickly. With his enthusiasm and reliability, not to mention his skill, he breathed new life into the project.
Kevin decided to go with the more stripped down, raw sounding three-piece. A week and half later, Tom Bishop was chosen to fill the void.
Tom promptly moved his kit and P. Call up your local radio show to request it. And we would love to see your smiling face, bopping head and tapping foot at the Sky Bar on March 8th for our first show in four months.
Visit the shows page to get the specifics. Yup, Eric and Tom have laid their tracks and Kevin is about to finish his.
And again we venture to the club known to Cambridge-onians as…TT the Bears. November 1st is the date. Check the Shows page for details. The guys sounded great at the Middle East, Downstairs a couple weeks ago.
The as-of-yet unnamed disc is being recorded in their practice space with loaned equipment. On a personal note. Some friends of ours are getting married today.
Ken and Christine, we wish you the best. Good luck. The guys sounded great at the Sky Bar last Friday…for as long as they were allowed to play.
A very late sound man caused the set to be cut in half. But despite abreviated stage time, they still receive many compliments.
And now for that something extra. Well, to be as completely vauge and childish as possible —. To be sure, the level of polygyny found among European aristocrats in the early Middle Ages was quite low compared to the harems of China and the Muslim countries, but that may well have been due partly to the relatively undeveloped economic situation of the early Middle Ages.
After all, the emperor of China presided over a vast and populous country with huge surplus economic production.
They were much wealthier than the tribal chieftains of early medieval Europe, and they used that wealth and power to obtain vastly more women.
In any case, polygyny did exist in Europe, and during the Middle Ages it became the object of conflict between the Church and the aristocracy.
The Church was "the most influential and important governmental institution [of Europe] during the medieval period" and a major aspect of this power over the secular aristocracy involved the regulation of sex and reproduction.
The program of the Church "required above all that laymen, especially the most powerful among them, should submit to the authority of the Church and allow it to supervise their morals, especially their sexual morals.
It was by this means, through marriage, that the aristocracy could be kept under control. All matrimonial problems had to be submitted to and resolved by the Church alone.
Attempting to understand the behavior of the Church during this period in terms of evolutionary psychology is beyond the scope of this paper.
In the same way, people desire sex, but engaging in sex does not necessarily lead to having lots of children even though Mother Nature designed it that way.
One unique feature of the Church is that its popularity was aided by the image and reality that the Church was altruistic. The medieval Church successfully portrayed the image that it was not concerned with controlling women or having a high level of reproductive success.
This was not always the case. Before the reforms of the Middle Ages, many priests had wives and concubines. Writing of the French Church in , Saint Boniface complained to the pope about "so-called deacons who have spent their lives since boyhood in debauchery, adultery, and every kind of filthiness, who entered the diaconate with this reputation, and who now, while they have four or five concubines in their beds, still read the gospel.
Nevertheless, reform among the clergy was real. No English prelate of the 13th century is known to have had a wife or family.
Married clergy even at lower levels were exceptional during this period in England, and low levels of clerical incontinence continued into the Reformation period.
The Church therefore projected the image of chastity and altruism. Its power and wealth were not directed at reproductive success. True reproductive altruism appears to have been a factor in the very widespread attraction of extremely ascetic monastic lifestyles.
During the 11th and 12th centuries thousands of monasteries were founded. Composed of celibate and ascetic males and recruited mainly from the more affluent classes, monasteries "set the tone in the spirituality of the whole church, in education and in art, [and] in the transmission of culture.
These orders provided a very popular public image of the Church. During the 13th century, mendicant friars Dominicans, Franciscans were instrumental in reforming the Church to extend the power of the Pope over the Church, to enforce rules on clerical celibacy, to prevent nepotism and simony the buying and selling of Church offices , and to give the Church substantial power over secular powers, including the ability to regulate sexual relationships.
During the 13th century, the mendicant friars were typically recruited from the aristocracy, the landed gentry, and other affluent families. Their parents often disapproved of their decision, presumably because, like most parents, they wanted grandchildren.
At the center of society was an institution with an ideology that people ought to be altruistic, that they ought to be celibate even when they were born to wealth.
This explains popular acceptance of the authority of the church in matters of marriage and sex, but it still makes one wonder why these well-off people were entering monasteries and becoming celibate in the first place.
Like it or not, whatever else one might say about Western Europe during this period, eugenics was not a part of the picture.
The medieval Church was a unique feature of Western culture, but a theme of this paper is that in critical ways it was most un-Western.
This is because medieval Europe was a collectivist society with a strong sense of group identification and commitment, and I will be arguing that Western societies are also unique in their commitment to individualism—that in fact individualism is a defining feature of Western civilization.
The collectivism of Western European society in the late Middle Ages was real. There was intense group identification and group commitment to Christianity among all levels of society, as indicated, for example, by the multitudes of pilgrims and the outpouring of religious fervor and in-group fervor associated with the Crusades to free the Holy Land from Muslim control.
As described above, there were also high levels of reproductive altruism, particularly among the mendicant friars, many other religious personnel, and eventually the secular elite.
Reproductive altruism among the secular elite was mainly the result of coercion but there are also cases of voluntary restraint, as in the case of Louis IX of France—St.
Louis was not only a paragon of proper Christian sexual behavior. There were indeed gaps between the ideal of a unified Christian society based on the power of the Church and sexual restraint among the elite.
But these gaps must be balanced by the recognition that many medieval Christians, and especially the central actors in medieval society such as: The monastic movements, the mendicant friars, the reforming popes, the fervent Crusaders, the pious pilgrims, and even many elite aristocrats, saw themselves to be part of a highly unified, supranational collectivity.
It is this fundamentally collectivist orientation—so foreign to contemporary Western life—that renders the high levels of group commitment and altruism characteristic of the medieval period comprehensible in psychological terms.
In Western Europe the Church adopted an ecclesiastical model of marriage that was diametrically opposed to the reproductive interests of the aristocracy.
As a direct result of these efforts, there was a transformation of family structure and the social imposition of monogamy by the Christian Church by the end of the 12th century.
The following factors appear to have been most important in the imposition and maintenance of monogamy:. Prohibitions on Divorce. Wealthy males benefit most by being able to divorce easily because they can more easily remarry.
Divorce became ever more restricted under the Christian Roman emperors, and between the 9th and the 12th century the Church engaged in a successful conflict with the aristocracy centering around a series of divorce cases involving the nobility.
For example, in the late 12 th century, King Phillip of France was prevented from divorcing his wife even though he disliked her and she was infertile.
The king had to apologize to a group of religious personnel at an abbey in Paris. At times divorce was allowed, but only if the goal was to obtain a male heir in cases where the first marriage had failed to produce one e.
Divorce "was virtually impossible except for a handful of the very rich" in England until the reform of But even then divorce rates remained very low.
So far as I know, this powerful tendency in opposition to divorce is unique to Western European civilization. Penalties for Illegitimacy.
From an evolutionary perspective, the most crucial aspect of social controls related to reproduction is the control of concubinage.
Controls on illegitimacy oppose the reproductive interests of wealthy males by making concubinage difficult or impossible and by affecting the prospects of illegitimate children by, e.
The Church was actively opposed to concubinage, especially concubinage in the presence of a legitimate wife. It would appear that social controls on the abilities of illegitimate children to inherit were often effective.
Church held the attitude that legitimate marriage produced legitimate children and that others had no legal standing, although in certain periods bastards had more standing than others see below.
The estates of bastards were subject to confiscation by the Church or the state, so that even if a man wanted to leave property to a bastard his wishes could be thwarted by the authorities.
Bastards disappeared from wills altogether during the Puritan era in England. Besides direct Church influence, there were a variety of other penalties attached to illegitimate birth arising from the secular authorities and public opinion.
Being the father and especially the mother of an illegitimate child were causes for ostracism and jail, and it was common for the woman to take every effort to conceal the pregnancy, including leaving the area.
These social controls had effects on mortality of illegitimate children. Infant mortality was higher for illegitimate children in both early modern England and France.
Women often abandoned illegitimate children. Illegitimate children were often reported as stillborn, indicating infanticide, and women sometimes sought to avoid bearing illegitimate children via abortion.
Controls on Concubinage among the Elite. Controls on concubinage by elite males became increasingly effective during the Middle Ages.
The 12th century thus appears to be pivotal. There are good examples from this period of elite males who were able to avoid social and ideological controls favoring monogamy as well as examples where such individuals were entirely monogamous.
The general patterns may be perceived by considering the illegitimate fertility of English kings. Ten of the 18 kings who ruled England from to are known to have taken mistresses, and are known to have fathered 41 illegitimate offspring who can be identified with a fair degree of certainty.
Henry I, who ruled from to sired 20 of these, and 5 more are listed as probable. No other Medieval king sired more than 3, and no certain illegitimate children are recorded for 8 of the kings.
Henry I is unique in his apparent interest in obtaining large numbers of offspring to further his territorial ambitions.
However, Henry treated his illegitimate children far less well than his legitimate children, the latter being pampered, tutored at court, and prepared for life as great nobles.
Bastards, on the other hand, were excluded from inheriting the throne, and they were often not offered marriages. Reflecting the general change in attitudes and practices related to marriage occurring in the 12th century, there is a decline in both the numbers and importance of illegitimate children in the following centuries.
One of the prime goals of the medieval Church was to police sexual behavior outside of monogamous marriage Policing sexual violations was an important function of the ecclesiastical courts beginning in the Middle Ages and extending at least to the end of the 17th century.
These courts were very active in 17th century England prosecuting cases of fornication, adultery, incest, and illicit cohabitation.
Although the effectiveness of these ecclesiastical sanctions varied by region and period, there were examples of devastating consequences in which "the victim was hounded by his fellows, deprived of his living by a community boycott, and treated as an outcast".
In the 17th century the ability of the High Commission of the Ecclesiastical Court system to impose sanctions, including sanctions for adultery, on the propertied who could expect to be immune from other judicial processes: "This enforcement of equality before the law did not endear the court to those who mattered in seventeenth-century England".
For example, pursuant to Elizabethan statutes, Justices of the Peace in the 16th and17th centuries commonly sentenced sexual offenders of both sexes to a public whipping while stripped to waist the woman "until her back be bloody" and placed in the stocks.
Ideologies Promoting Monogamy. Although ultimately relying on social controls, the Medieval Church developed elaborate ideologies to promote monogamy and sexual restraint.
In general these writings emphasized the moral superiority of celibacy and the sinfulness of extra-marital sex of any kind. All sexual relationships, apart from monogamous marriage, were universally condemned by religious authority throughout the early modern period into contemporary times.
While there was a relative relaxation of attitudes during the 18th century, a powerful anti-hedonist religious sexual ideology rose to prominence in the 19th century.
Beginning in the Middle Ages an elaborate system of social controls and ideologies resulted in the more or less complete imposition of monogamy in large areas of Western Europe.
The King in has palace, the peasant in his hovel: neither was exempt. There was a positive association between wealth and reproductive success throughout pre-industrial Europe.
In Western Europe there has been a remarkable continuity within a varied set of institutions, which have penalized polygyny and channeled non-monogamous sexuality into non-reproductive outlets or suppressed it altogether.
Despite changes in these institutions and despite vast changes in political and economic structures, Western family institutions deriving ultimately from Roman civilization have clearly aimed at the social imposition of monogamy.
By and large, this effort has been successful. Monogamy is a very central aspect of Western uniqueness with some important effects. Monogamy may well be a necessary condition for the unique European "low-pressure" demographic profile.
The connection with monogamy is that monogamous marriage results in a situation where the poor of both sexes are unable to mate, whereas in polygynous systems an excess of poor females merely lowers the price of concubines for wealthy males.
Like monogamy, this pattern was unique among the stratified societies of Eurasia. In turn, the low-pressure demographic profile appears to have had economic consequences.
Not only was the marriage rate the main damper on population growth, but this response, especially in England, had a tendency to lag well behind favorable economic changes so that there was a tendency for capital accumulation during good times rather than a constant pressure of population on food supply:.
There is therefore some reason to suppose that monogamy, by resulting in a low-pressure demographic profile, was a necessary condition for industrialization.
Instead, marriage is influenced by economic constraints. In times of prosperity the age of marriage for both sexes declined and fewer females remained non-reproductive.
The result was a marriage system which is highly sensitive to resource availability: "An important distinguishing feature of Europe, the pivot upon which the system turned, was the flexible marital regime, which allowed population to adjust to economy.
Monogamy and investment in children. Polygynous mating systems tend to result in resources being devoted to reproduction and relatively less to investment in children.
For a male in a polygynous society it is attractive to invest in another wife or concubine and her low investment offspring.
Offspring of concubines were typically given relatively small inheritances and allowed to descend the social ladder. There is a low sex ratio of offspring among harem women—a preponderance of daughters.
On the other hand, sons of the upper classes were targets of dowry competition for lower status families. In either case, there is little need for fathers to invest time, energy, or money in the offspring of their concubines.
Monogamy, however, restricts the investment of individual males to the offspring of one woman. With the decline in extended kinship relations see below and the institutionalization of monogamy on all social classes, support for children came to rest completely upon the independent nuclear family.
As described below, this "simple" family was the critical vehicle of Western modernization. As in the case of monogamy, the Church also had a role in the decline of extended kinship relationships.
In this case, however, Church policy was aided by the rise of strong central governments, which discouraged extended family relationships and replaced the role of the extended family in guaranteeing individual interests.
From an evolutionary perspective one can scarcely overestimate the potential importance of kinship relationships. Because of the ties of biological relatedness, kin are expected to have common interests and lower thresholds for cooperation and even self-sacrificing behavior.
The Germanic tribes who settled much of Western Europe at the end of the Roman Empire were organized as kinship groups based on biological relatedness among males.
They tribes had a strong sense of group solidarity based on these ties of kinship. Forces Opposing Extended Kinship. The eradication of large, powerful kinship groups was in the interests of both the Church and the aristocracy.
A higher degree of centralized state power by itself has a tendency to lessen the importance of extended kinship relations, especially if that power protects the interests of individuals.
From an evolutionary perspective, extended kinship groups have costs and benefits. The benefits accrue from the protection and support provided by the wider kindred, but these benefits entail costs in terms of: 1.
As a result, individuals are expected to avoid becoming enmeshed in extended kinship groups when their interests are protected by other institutions i.
In general individuals tend to seek the protection of the extended kinship group when centralized power fails, and they correspondingly flee the extended kinship group when state power is sufficient to protect their interests.
The picture one gets is the gradual development in the West of an aristocracy based on the simple family and freed from obligations to collateral kin dominating a peasantry characterized by the simple family and embedded in a society of neighbors and friends, not an extended kinship group.
This social structure was an achievement of the late Middle Ages. Extended kinship relations were not important among the peasantry in late Medieval England or France.
Church Policy. For its part, the Church contributed to the eradication of extended kinship ties in Western Europe by opposing consanguineous marriage marriage of blood relatives and supporting marriage based solely on consent of the partners.
In the case of consanguinity, the Church prohibited marriage between an ever-expanding set of individuals. In the sixth century the prohibition was extended to second cousins and by the eleventh century it was extended to 6th cousins i.
Clearly these prohibitions on consanguinity go far beyond those predicted by evolutionary theory. The effect of the policy was to undermine extensive kinship networks and to create an aristocracy freed from obligations to the wider kin group.
Whatever the rationale given to these prohibitions by the Church, there is evidence that the aristocracy obeyed the ecclesiastical rules.
There were very few marriages closer than 4th or 5th cousins among the French nobility of the 10th and 11th centuries.
The direct descendents of the family rather than the wider kinship group also benefited: "Men in high secular positions. By removing the fundamental nature of marriage from the control of the family and the secular lord to the individuals involved, the Church established its authority against the traditional ties of kinship and family.
The Magian [Eastern] man is but part of a pneumatic "We" which, descending from above, is one and the same in all members.
As body and soul he belongs to himself alone, but something else, something alien and higher, dwells in him, making him with all his glimpses and convictions just a member of a consensus, which, as the emanation of God, excludes all possibility of the self-asserting Ego.
Truth is for him something other than for us i. All our epistemological methods, resting upon the individual judgment, are for him madness and infatuation and its scientific results a work of the Evil One, who has confused and deceived the spirit as to its true dispositions and purposes.
Herein lies the ultimate, for unapproachable secret of Magian though in its cavern world — the impossibility of a thinking, believing, and knowing Ego is the presupposition in all the fundamentals of all these religions.
Thus far one might suppose that the creation of the individualistic nuclear family based on consent and love, monogamy, and the decline in the importance of extended kinship is simply the result of the social processes I have mentioned.
But the fact is that these changes occurred much more quickly and much more thoroughly than in other parts of the world.
The Western world remains the only culture area fundamentally characterized by all of the markers of individualism: Monogamy, the conjugal nuclear family, representative government with individual rights against the state, moral universalism, and science.
Further, this culture was built on the robust base of Roman civilization, which had several of these features. I suggest therefore that these tendencies are unique to the Western European culture area and that they have an ethnic basis.
I do not suppose that Western Europeans have any unique biological adaptations, only that we differ in degree in adaptations characteristic of all humans and that the differences are sufficient to enable the evolution of a unique human culture.
Similarly, all humans have the distinctively human mental abilities like symbolic representation and language, but races show quantitative differences in IQ sufficient to have major effects on their cultures—perhaps sufficient to result in at least some qualitative differences.
I suggest thatover the course of their recent evolution, Europeans have been less subjected to between-group natural selection than Jews and other Middle Eastern populations.
This was originally proposed by Fritz Lenz, who suggested that, because of the harsh environment of the Ice Age, the Nordic peoples evolved in small groups and have a tendency toward social isolation.
This perspective is consistent with ecological theory. Under ecologically adverse circumstances, adaptations are directed more at coping with the adverse physical environment than at competing with other groups, and in such an environment, there would be less pressure for selection for extended kinship networks and highly collectivist groups.
Ethnocentrism would thus be of no importance at all in combating the physical environment, and such an environment would not support large groups.
European groups are part of the North Eurasian and Circumpolar culture area. In such climates there is pressure for male provisioning of the family and a tendency toward monogamy because the ecology did not support either polygyny or large groups for an evolutionarily significant period.
These cultures are characterized by bilateral kinship relationships which recognize both the male and female lines, suggesting a more equal contribution for each sex as would be expected under conditions of monogamy.
There is also less emphasis on extended kinship relationships and marriage tends to be exogamous i. See the full list. Looking for some great streaming picks?
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Kevin Macdonald was born on October 28, in Glasgow, Scotland. He has been married to Tatiana Macdonald since July 2, They have three children.
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